Journal of Social Science

 
Analysis of The Effect of Employee Placement and Environment on Performance through Motivation

 

Mariani Setiyowati1*, Harsono2, Tanto G. Sumarsono3

1Student of Master of Management Merdeka University, Malang, Indonesia 2Lecturer of Master of Management, Merdeka University, Malang, Indonesia 3 Lecturer of Master of Management, Merdeka University, Malang, Indonesia


 

A R T I C L E I N F O                     A B S T R A C T

 

AIJ use only:

Received date 23 March 2020

Revised date 01 April 2020

Accepted date 05 May 2020                              

Keywords: Employee Placement Work environment Motivation

Work performance

 

This study aims to describe the placement of employees, work environment, motivation and performance as well as analyzing its influence on the Civil Servants of Balai Besar Pemerintahan Desa in Malang. The study was conducted by using descriptive analysis and path analysis with a significance level (α) 0.05. Samples taken were civil servants at the Balai Besar Pemerintahan Desa in Malang with a total of 31 people. The results showed that the placement of employees and the work environment had a positive and significant effect on motivation indicated by coefficients of 0.518 and 0.756 and sig 0.005 and 0.010. Employee placement and work environment had a positive and significant effect on performance with coefficients of 0.735 and 0.764 and sig values of 0.000 and

0.001. Motivation had a positive and significant effect on performance with a coefficient of 0.989 and sig 0,000. Motivation had not been able to mediate the effect of employee placement and work environment on performance. This is because the results of the value of the direct effect was greater when compared to the

indirect effect.

 


 


INTRODUCTION

Human resources (HR) are assets that have the largest share in all organizations or companies. Improper handling will hamper the achievement of organizational or company goals. In an increasingly competitive era, special strategies are needed in the development of an organization's HR. One part of HR management is performance. Performance is an indicator of organizational success in achieving goals.


*  Corresponding author.

E-mail address: rya_qyut85@yahoo.com

         Article with open access under license

         

 

An organization wants the human resources to be able to work with all the best capabilities. Therefore, to realize this situation, one of the efforts made is to provide motivation to improve performance of HR.

No different from organizations in general, government agencies also place the element of HR as one of the determining factors for the success of achieving goals (Gibson, 2010). states if the performance or achievement of an organization depends on the performance of its employees. This indicates that if the achievements of employees will contribute to the overall organizational performance.


 


 

The performance appraisal process must be carried out, which aims to measure or assess whether an employee has succeeded or failed in carrying out his work using predetermined standards. Government Regulation Number 46 of 2011 concerning Evaluation of Civil Servants Performance combining Employee Work Target Evaluation with Work Behavior Assessment. The appraisal system for the performance of civil servants is considered to have a good level of objectivity which combines performance and work behavior.

Balai Besar Pemerintahan Desa (BBPD) in Malang has the task of conducting training for village government officials and village community organizations. Handling 14 work areas, the existence of BBPD in Malang has an important role in realizing the government's program, namely developing the country starting from the periphery and villages. BBPD Civil Servants in Malang are demanded to always improve their performance in providing training services to the community. Here we present data regarding the performance of BBPD civil servants in Malang during 2014 until 2018 :

Table 1

Recapitulation of Average Performance Assessment of Central Government Village Civil Servants in Malang 2014 to 2018

 

Year

Performance

Percentage of Increase/ (Decrease)

2014

83,94

 

2015

84,56

0,7332

2016

85,00

0,5176

2017

84,92

(0,0942)

2018

83,76

(1,3849)

Average

84,44

(0,0571)

Source: Secondary Data Processed, 2020

 

In the table above, it can be seen that each year the performance had changed both decreased and increased. This is interesting to study because the performance of civil servants is in the spotlight in the bureaucratic reform program. Employee placement is one of the keys to obtain optimal performance from employees in addition to work morale, creativity, and initiatives which will also develop. (Malayu, 2017). Beside employee placement, the work environment also influences changes in employee performance. The work environment is another factor outside of


humans, both physical and non-physical. (Sofyan, 2013). The work environment can be said to be good if the employees carry out their work optimally and comfortably. (Haryono, 2016). From the above background, the writers want to analyze further the influence between employee placement, work environment, and motivation on BBPD civil servants’ performance in Malang.

The purposes of this study are to:

1.   Describe the placement of employees, work environment, motivation and performance at BBPD civil servants in Malang.

2.   Analyze the effect of employee placement and work environment on motivation at BBPD civil servants in Malang

3.   Analyze the effect of employee placement and work environment on performance in BBPD civil servants in Malang

4.   Analyze the effect of motivation on performance

5.   Analyze the effect of employee placement and work environment on performance through motivation

 

 

THEORY/CALCULATION (if any)

Employee Placement

Employee placement is an activity to place one's position in the right job position. (Badriyah, 2015). How well employees perform their jobs will affect the amount and quality of work. According to (Yuniarsih, 2013). placement of employees not only places but must also match and compare qualifications held by employees with the needs and prerequisites of an office or job (Yuniarsih, 2013) also stated that in placing employees, it is important to pay attention to indicators namely education, work knowledge, work skills, and work experience.

 

Work Environment

The work environment is a supporting facility to achieve company goals in accordance with the company's vision and mission (Sedarmayanti, 2017) Meanwhile according to (Steve, 2012) the work environment is the overall relationship that occurs with employees at work. So the work environment needs to be a special concern to

increase motivation and performance. The work


 


 

environment is divided into physical work environment and non-physical work environment. The physical work environment is affected by lighting, temperature/ air temperature, humidity, air circulation and noise. While non-physical work environment is a condition of employee work environment in the form of a harmonious work environment where there is a relationship or communication between subordinates with superiors or vertical relationships as well as relationships between fellow employees or horizontal relationships.

 

Motivation

According to (Malayu, 2017), motivation discusses what needs to be done in directing the power and potential of subordinates so that they can work together in achieving the goals set. From the above understanding, it can be seen if motivation is closely related to the desires and needs that encourage someone to do something. Abraham Maslow's motivational theory is a plural theory of someone to behave or work. According to Maslow, there are five levels of human needs that encourage someone to behave, namely ;

1.       Physiological needs, concerning the needs that must be satisfied to stay alive.

2.       The need for safety and security is the need for freedom from the threat of accidents.

3.       Social needs is the need to have friends, interact, be loved and love and be accepted in relationships

4.       The need for appreciation is the need for recognition and self-esteem from the organization and community environment.

5.       The need for self-actualization is the need for self-actualization by using abilities, skills and potential to achieve performance.

 

Performance

Performance is the quality and quantity of work achieved by employees in carrying out their duties in accordance with the responsibilities given to them (Prabu, 2012). Performance appraisal of civil servants is used as a basis for determining policy decisions for civil servant career development


(Goverment, 2011) Performance appraisal of civil servants includes aspects as follow :

1.       Quantity is a measure of the amount or amount of work achieved

2.       Quality is a measure of quality in every work achieved

3.       Time is a measure of the length of the process of each work achieved by an employee

4.       Cost is the amount of budget used by each employee

 

METHOD

Research Design

This research used a quantitative approach by testing 4 hypotheses that were compiled. Descriptive analysis was used to explain the picture of each variable. The study used multiple linear analysis and path analysis. Data obtained from respondents by distributing questionnaires whose answers based on Likert scale with choice 1 is strongly disagree, 2 is disagree, 3 is neutral 4 is agree and 5 is strongly agree. Causality approach is used to examine the possibility of a causal relationship between variables. (Sugiyono, 2017).

 

Population and Sample

In this study, the population to be used was all civil servants at The Central Government Village (BBPD) in Malang, about 31 people. Because the number of samples were relatively small, the study used the census method.

 

Variables and Indicators

Employee placement was measured by 4 indicators, namely suitability of education, suitability of knowledge, suitability of skills, and suitability of experience. The work environment was measured by 2 indicators namely the physical work environment and the non-physical work environment. Motivation was measured by 4 indicators, namely physiological needs, security needs, social needs, and appreciation needs. Performance was measured by 4 indicators, namely quantity, quality, timeliness and cost.


 


 

Data analysis technique

a.      Validity and Reliability Test

Validity test is done to find out whether the statement item has a good level of accuracy. Validity test is done by comparing the value of r arithmetic with r table. Statement items are said to be valid if the value of r is calculated > r table. While the reliability test is conducted to test whether the research questionnaire if tested will produce constant data. The reliability test is done by looking at the Croncbach Alpha value where it is reliable if the Alpha Croancbach value is > 0.6.

b.      Classic Assumption Test

1)     Normality test

Normality test is carried out to find out whether each equation has a normal distribution of data or not. The normality test is carried out by the Kolmogorov- Smirnov Z (I-Sample K-S) test with conclusions that can be drawn if the Asymp.Sig (2-tailed) value is less than 0.05, the existing data is not normally distributed and vice versa.

2)     Multicollinearity Test

Multicollinearity test is performed to detect the correlation between one independent variable and another independent variable. A good regression model should not occur correlation among independent variables. This test can be done by looking at the value of Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) and Tolerance from the results of the regression analysis. Multicollinearity occurs if the Tolerance value > 0.10 and VIF value < 10.

3)     Heteroscedasticity Test

An independent variable in the regression equation is said not to cause heteroscedasticity if the correlation of the independent variable with absolute values is a real residue. To see the presence or absence of these symptoms, it can be seen with a scatterplor image pattern. Regression equations do not experience heteroscedasticity if the pattern of images of


the data points spreads and does not form certain patterns.

 

c.    Descriptive Analysis

Descriptive analysis in this study will be used to determine the frequency distribution of respondents' answers to the results of questionnaire collection. This analysis is needed to describe field data by interpreting data processing through tabulation.

d.    Path Analysis

The influence test in this study used path analysis which is due to the fact that there was more than one independent variable in this study. The stages in Path analysis are (Kuncoro, 2008)

1.   Formulating hypotheses and structural equations

2.   Calculating the path coefficient

3.   Calculating the path coefficients simultaneously (overall)

4.   Calculating the path coefficients partially (individually)

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Profile of Respondents

Profile of respondents in this study are presented in the following table :

               Table 2. Profile of Respondents               

 

 

Criteria

Percentage

Gender

Male

48,39 %

 

Female

51,61 %

Age

< 30 years

12,9 %

 

31 40 years

32,26 %

 

41 50 years

22,58 %

 

> 50 years

32,26 %

Level of

education

 

Senior High School

 

3,23 %

 

Bachelor (S-1)

51,61 %

 

Master (S-2)

45,16 %

Position

Structural Officer

35,49 %

 

Managing Position (staff)

64,51 %

Source: Primary Data Processed, 2020

 

From the above table, it can be concluded that respondents were dominated by women with ages ranging from 31 - 40 years and > 50 years, which means that in adulthood, having a high level of


 


 

intelligence and in the element of managing position (staff).

 

Results of Test Validity and Reliability of Research Instruments

The results of the validity test conducted on the research instrument were known that all of the 43 statements proved to be valid because the value of r arithmetic > r table, where r arithmetic was equal to

0.33. Then the probability for each statement did not exceed the research error level of 5%. So it can be concluded that all statements in the instrument are valid. The reliability test results show the Cronbach Alpha value for all statements above 0.6. Thus, it can be concluded that all statements in the instrument are reliable.

 

Results of Classical Assumption Test Normality Test Results

Normality test results for the research equation show that the Asymp.Sig (2-tailed) value is above

0.05. So that the linear equation in the study meets the normality test.

 

Multicollinearity Test Results

Multicollinearity test results for the equation in the study showed that the equation in the study did not experience symptoms of multicollinearity.

 

Heteroscedasticity Test Results

Heteroscedasticity test results for the research equation showed that there is no indication of heteroscedasticity in the research equation.

 

Results of Descriptive Analysis

The description of respondents' perceptions can be analyzed from the average results on each indicator and statement items. The indicator that best describes the employee placement variable was the suitability of experience. Experience was approved as one of the things that could facilitate the completion of the work. Indicators describing work environment variables were physical environmental conditions reflected in lighting in the workspace that was not blinding so that it

supported the work completion process. Indicators


describing motivational variables were reflected in meeting the physiological needs of employees. Where the salary earned is able to meet the basic needs of life of employees. The indicators that best describe the work performance variable are quantity and quality. The indicator of the number of employee's work results that had been well studied was an indicator of performance.

Results of Linear Regression Analysis

To build a structural equation model, a regression was carried out four times. The results of the regression model equation are as follows:

1.    Y1 = α1 + β1X1 + β2X2 + ε

2.    Y2 = α2 + β3X1 + β4X2 + ε

3.    Y2 =α3 +β5Y1+ ε

4.    Y2 = α4 + β1X1 + β2X2 + β5Y1 +ε

The results of the structural equation model are presented in the following figure:

 

β3=0,512; α3 = 0,002

 

 

β1=0,518; α1 = 0,005

β5 =0,915; α5 = 0,000

 

 

 

 

 

β4 =1,091 ; α4 = 0,000

Figure 1

Structural Equation Model Results

 

Explanation :

Y2                    = Performance

X1                    = Employee Placement

X2                    = Work environment

Y1                    = Motivation

β1, β2, β3, β4, β5    = Regression Coefficient

ε                                  = Epsilon

α                                 = Intersep

 

There are five regression coefficients in the structural equation model above. All regression coefficients show a significant effect. The path analysis results are presented in the table below:


 


 

Table 3. Path Analysis Results

 

Variable

Coeficients

Res ults

Independen

Mediatio n

Dependen

Direct

In direct

Total

Employee

Placement

 

Motivation

0,518

 

 

Acc.

Work environment

 

Motivation

0,756

 

 

Acc.

Employee

Placement

 

Performance

0,512

 

 

Acc.

Work environment

 

Performance

1,091

 

 

Acc.

Motivation

 

Performance

0,951

 

 

Acc.

Employee Placement

Motivati on

Performance

 

0,518 x

0,951 =

0,493

0,512

+ 0,493

=

1,005

Reje cted

Work environment

Motivati on

Performance

 

0,756 x

0,951 =

0,719

1,091

+ 0,719

=

1,81

Reje cted

 

The Effects of Employee Placement and Work Environment on Motivation

The placement of employees significantly influenced the motivation of BBPD civil servants in Malang. Appropriate employee placement was reflected in the suitability of the experience indicating that in carrying out the task, the motivation of civil servants will increase if they have appropriate experience to their duties and functions. It is in accordance with the research conducted by (A. Yani, H. Susilo, 2016) which states that the suitability of knowledge, skills, and education influences the motivation of employees’ work.

The work environment had a significant effect on the motivation of BBPD civil servants in Malang. The main indicator in the work environment was about creating a physical environment where lighting in the workspace was felt not to dazzle the eyes. The creation of a comfortable work environment can increase employee work motivation. It is in line with research conducted by (Jayaweera, 2015) which indicates the influence of the work environment on work motivation.

 

The Effects of Employee Placement and Work Environment on Performance

Employee placement has a significant effect on work performance in BBPD civil servants in Malang. It can also be interpreted if the placement of employees has a significant influence in changing employee performance. Placing employee in the right


place in accordance with his experience, knowledge, skills, and education will encourage the employee concerned to improve his work if coupled with the right sense of responsibility for the placement. It is in line with research conducted by (Saputra, 2018).

The results revealed that the work environment had a significant effect on work performance. It means if the creation of an environmental system in the workplace is good, it can guarantee employee performance increases. The results of this study are in line with the results of research conducted by (Demet, 2012). stating that the work environment has a positive impact on employee work performance. A comfortable work environment both physically and non-physically will cause the level of concentration of employees in work to increase and this condition can also increase productivity and quality of employee work.

 

The Effect of Motivation on Work Performance

Motivation has a significant effect on work performance. It means the policy taken in terms of employee motivation will affect the work performance of BBPD civil servants in Malang. The higher the motivation of an employee or the better the motivation is provided, there will be a tendency for the employee's work performance to increase. The results also state that fulfilment physiological needs is the highest indicator of work motivation. It is in line with research conducted by (Surjosuseno, n.d.), stated that if an employee's salary has been able to meet basic daily needs, the employee will be calm during working, then has an impact on improving performance.

 

The Effect of Employee Placement and Work Environment on Performance through Motivation

In this study, it was found that motivation cannot mediate the relationship between employee placement and work environment on the performance of civil servants of BBPD in Malang. It contradicts the research conducted by (Julia Anita, Nasir Aziz, 2013). And (Riky Welli Saputra, Misransyah Akos, 2018), where the results of their study stated that motivation is able to mediate


 


 

employee placement and work environment on work performance. It could have happened because the provision of motivation as the domain of the leader has not been fully successful if given through the placement of employees and the work environment. The right employee placement directly indicates an increase in BBPD civil servant performance in Malang, without having been motivated first by the leader. Likewise the work environment, without being motivated, it has been able to improve the performance of BBPD civil servants in Malang if a conducive environment is created

 

CONCLUSION

The results showed that the placement of employees and work environment had a significant impact on changes in motivation and performance of BBPD civil servants in Malang. Placement of employees leading to suitability of experience will foster motivation in work. The creation of a comfortable physical environment will spur motivation to work. Performance appraisal is based on the quantity of work results that have been well researched. The influence of

motivation as a mediating variable cannot be proven in this study. So, the recommendations for the further research are shown below :

 

 

 

 


Figure 2

The Recommendation Model for Future Research

 

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