Fera Belinda, and Maria Puspitasari
Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia
Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia
Date received : 04 January 2021
Revision date : 06 February 2021
Date received : 04 March 2021
Hoaks or fake news is a serious concern because it has a negative impact due to information that is not ascertained the truth. Especially during the political year of the 2019 presidential election, the spread of hoaxes is increasingly massively attacking each candidate personally and institutionally. The Ministry of Communication and Information recorded in 2018 there were 733 hoaks content. In 2019, hoax content increased sharply to 3,801. The drastic increase in the amount of hoax content occurred from February to May, along with the 2019 elections. Not stopping in the 2019 presidential election, until the first half of 2020, the number of hoaks content has reached 1855. The number of hoaks content increased again in March, along with the emergence of the Covid-19 pandemic in Indonesia and continued with the enactment of the Omnibus Law Ciptakerja. The development of social media technology and smartphones is one of the causes of the current hoaks outbreak. The theories used in this study are the concept of hoaxes, social media and the firehose of falsehood, as well as the theory of delegitimization. The focus of the research on youtube social media channel contains a statement from the Indonesian Rescue Action Coalition Movement (KAMI) in the period September – October 2020. Although it is a new group, us members are old figures who have been known to be opposed to the Jokowi government. The research methodology used is qualitative approach with data collection method through observation of video text posted. While the method of data analysis is done by analyzing the content or content to give an idea of the rush of fake news that has the potential to harm threats that can disrupt security stability, can even potentially damage the joints of national and state life, as well as become a threat to the sustainability of democracy. The results of this study concluded that hoaxes are usually chained and re-forward existing information and that the content has similarities to previous hoax content. This study recommends the government to actively educate the public regarding media literacy to be selective in receiving messages
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Hoaks or fake news is currently a serious concern because it has a negative impact due to information that is not ascertained the truth. Hoaks is interpreted as misguided or false information that is deliberately disguised to look right.
While hoax news is information that looks like factual news but turns out to be false, defamatory, and has no identifiable pattern (TAMMAM, 2018).
The year 2019 which is a political year, fake news or hoaks are back in the spotlight, even fairly horrendous elections 2019, including hoaks related to seven containers of ballots in the Port of Tanjung Priok, North Jakarta that has been thrown for the spouse of Joko Widodo - Ma'ruf Amin. This hoaks is as exciting as ratna sarumpaet's lie drama at the end of 2018. The spread of false news took place massively, even some figures expressed concern over the events experienced by Ratna Sarumpaet. All information is circulated in the mass media and disseminated by social media with various calculations. This issue is then linked to the political situation that certain parties want to impede Ratna Sarumpaet's career as a political activist (Golose, 2019). Other hoaks that are not less excited during the 2019 election period, among others: President Jokowi called the descendants of the PKI, Palace Advisors of members of the Communist Party of China, Jokowi called the Chinese with the nickname Wie Jo Koh, and KPU briefed Chinese immigrants to mencoblos in tps. Hoaks also targeted Capres Prabowo Subianto regarding family issues that were not harmonious and failed to educate children as a result of the divorce with Titiek Soehartro.
Contesting the 2019 presidential election is a repeat of the previous presidential election, but the friction that occurred is sharper and harder. This friction is believed to be the effect of polarization that was formed since the 2014 presidential election and continues with the 2017 DKI Jakarta regional elections. Polarization is evident from the rise of black campaigns attacking each candidate. The campaign that was supposed to be a place to convey the vision and mission and excellence of the candidate's spouse turned into a campaign with hate speech and fake news or hoaxes (Utami, 2018). The results of cyber patrols conducted by the Ministry of Communication and Informatics. In 2018, there were 733 hoax content identified, verified and validated by the Kemkominfo AIS (Automatic Identification System) Team. However, entering the 2019 political year, hoax content increased sharply to 3,801. The drastic increase in the amount of hoax content occurred from February to May, along with the 2019 elections. Similarly, in 2020, until the first semester the number of hoaks content has reached 1,855. The number of hoaks content increased again in March, along with the emergence of the Covid-19 pandemic in Indonesia (Beranda - PPID Kominfo, n.d.)
Figure 1.1 Hoax Content Findings
The dynamics of election 2019 is not only a rivalry between election participants of both political parties as well as 2 pairs of presidential and vice presidential candidates. The 2019 elections contain insecurity and threats that can disrupt security stability, can even potentially damage the joints of national and state life, as well as become a threat to the sustainability of democracy. Rapim TNI – Polri which took place on January 29, 2019 mapped a number of insecurity elections 2029, including: elections are driven by agendas that are contrary to Pancasila, as well as the practice of identity politics and sara politics that can divide society. Lies are disseminated massively and systematically by applying firehose propaganda patterns of falsehood (Golose, 2019).
The development of social media technology and smartphones is one of the causes of the outbreak of hoaxes. Many public channels are facilitated by both, such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram on social media. While on smartphones there are WhatsApp (WA) and Telegram groups. Especially when there is momentum where society is polarized such as during elections, hoaks rampant to deceive, incite, and disseminate rumors and slander (Heryanto, 2018). Based on a survey conducted by the Indonesian Anti-Defamation Society (Mafindo), flatform facebook ranked at the top of the spread of hoaks with a percentage of 47.83%, followed by Twitter 12.17%, whatsapp 11.74%, and youtube 7.83% (Jurnal Bawaslu DKI Jakarta, December 2018). The Indonesian Anti-Defamation Society (Mafindo) considers the increasing number of political-related hoaxes to potentially affect the quality of elections because it not only undermines the common sense of potential voters, but also legitimizes the process of organizing elections, and worse can damage harmony that leads to the disintegration of the nation (Kementerian Komunikasi dan Informatika, n.d.).
Is the hoaks circulating trusted by the public? The National Survey of Indonesian Political Indicators on December 16-26, 2018 and released on January 8, 2019 said that out of 1,220 respondents only 30% were aware of the allegations of Jokowi's Christian parents and 18% believed the issue. While related to Jokowi's accusations of ethnic Chinese, 34% of respondents know and 23% believe about the issue. Previous research conducted (Juditha, 2018) with the title Interaction of Hoaks Communication on Social Media and Anticipation in Pekommas Journal concluded that those who produce hoaks related to politics are parties who do not like the Jokowi government. Messages that are exchanged between users (senders and recipients) are hoaks messages in the form of news, information or images that are replaced narrative or image captions do not match the original. Other research conducted by Hunt Allcott and (Allcott & Gentzkow, 2017) under the title Social Media and Fake News in the 2016 Election in the Journal of Economic Perspektive concluded one false article was as persuasive as a single television campaign ad. In this study, fake news called fake news was widely used when presidential candidate Donald Trump competed with Hillary Clinton. The use of hoaxes or fake news also occurred in the Brazilian Presidential Election by elected president Jair Bolsonaro (Golose, 2019).
The tendency of fake news to target Jokowi personally and his government does not stop at the 2019 elections. In 2020, in addition to the issue of handling the Covid-19 pandemic by the government, hoaks are also rampant related to the enactment of the Omnibus Law Ciptakerja law by the House of Representatives, last October 5. A wave of protests against the law is rife in various regions of Indonesia due to disinformation received by the community. The rallies that led to the riots on October 8, 2020, led to police arresting 8 (eight) members of the Indonesian Rescue Action Coalition (KAMI) with various initial allegations, one of which was spreading fake news or hoaxes to provoke the public (Pratomo, 2019).
Although the KAMI Movement was only declared on August 18, 2020, but the figures who joined this movement are old figures who have been known to be opposed to the Jokowi Government. Hoaks indicated information (Triartanto, 2015) which is thrown out by US figures, is also not the first to occur in the case of rejection of the Omnibus Law Ciptakerja. In Hersubeno Point Youtube channel 21 September 2020, Presidium KAMI who is also a former TNI Commander, General Purn.Gatot Nurmantyo claimed his party sniffed out the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) Gaya Baru since 2008. Gatot's claim was also posted on The People's Fortress Youtube channel on September 22, 2020, Gatot spoke the reason for his dismissal as Commander of the TNI before his term ended because it obliged his members to watch the film G 30 S / PKI, pointing pki was behind the Bill of Direction of Ideology Pancasila, the regulation driven by PDI Perjuangan. Gatot Nurmantyo's issues still bear similarities to hoaks content during the 2014 and 2019 elections.
According to (Apandi, 2017), hoaks are fake or fake news that is used to deceive or trick readers or listeners into believing in information. Hoaks are not only news or opinions, but also include data, photos, and images. In the context of cyber media, hoaks are defined as text used as fake news or fraudulent attempts to spread through cyber media to readers to trust everything (Triartanto, 2015: 33). More than just deceit, hoaxes can also bring people into conflict and are even (rarely) used for personal gain. Did (Rochimah, WAN KADIR, & Abdullah, 2011), ada tujuh jenis informasi hoaks, yakni fake news or fake news, clickbait or trap links, confirmation bias or confirmation bias, misinformation, satire, post-truth or post-truth, and propaganda.
Based on the positive law applicable in Indonesia, spreading false news even if it is just a joke or forward violates article 28 paragraph (1) of the Information and Electronic Transactions Act with the threat of a criminal penalty of six years in prison and a fine of one billion rupiah.
Social Media Concept
Information technology is evolving rapidly and very quickly in all life lines, one that has a big influence is social media. Social media is used as a means of making friends and disseminating opinions, news or information. Social media is an online media with its users can easily participate, share, and create content including blogs, social networks, wikis, forums and virtual worlds. However, in the development of social media is often misused to spread opinions, news, or information containing lies (hoaks), defamation, hate speech, to threats (Pratama 4 Etika yang Harus Dijaga Saat Menyebarkan Informasi di Media Sosial, n.d.). The impact on the reported individual is a decrease in credibility and a loss of social trust (Utami, 2018). While in society triggers disputes and social disquisitivity, even threatens the disintegration of the nation due to the issue of SARA (Monohevita, 2017).
In (Kietzmann, Hermkens, McCarthy, & Silvestre, 2011) explained about sharing and relationships as part of the seven social media functions used by the sender of messages in social media. According (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010)S in artikel Horizons Bisnis (Talbert et al., 2012) published in 2010 there are six types of social media, including content such as youtube and social networking sites such as facebook.
The Concept of Firehose of Falsehood
Firehose of falsehood is a political propaganda that utilizes the science of communication based on neuroscience and big data to create fear through the preaching of lies by the media and produced massively with the aim of encouraging the public to choose and win the candidates they support. The most important thing is not the truth of information, but how news is mass produced and disseminated as much as possible in order to burn the emotions of the masses. As a result, even incorrect information is eventually accepted by the public as a truth. News attacks cause confusion and generate fear in the community. Obvious lies or lies are expressed and planned to generate fear. (Clearwater, Burnell, & Azwar, 2012).
(Van Dijk, 1998) states that delegitimization at the level of discourse is carried out when repressive and coercive devices are ineffective in marginalizing alternative discourse. Delegitimization strategies can be done in several ways. First, delegitimization is carried out with a focus on the context of production, access and use of discourse. Second, delegitimization is practiced with the focus of negative elements of a discourse, the suppression of violations of common values, or negative descriptions of certain parties. Third, delegitimization can be placed on the issue of possible effects of discourse (Fazio, 2020)
This study uses qualitative approach method that aims to determine and search, collect, process and analyze the data of research results. Qualitative approach is felt more precisely in this study because it produces descriptive data. Speech or writing and behavior can be observed from subjects studied and cannot be represented by statistical figures. The method of data collection is done by observing the video text posted on youtube social media channel containing the statements of Gatot Nurmantyo and the KAMI Movement in the period September – October 2020. While the method of data analysis is done by analyzing the content or content.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Gatot Nurmantyo's issues on Hersubeno Point Youtube channel, September 21, 2020 and Benteng Rakyat, September 22, 2020 fall into the propaganda category. In the channel, the key word that emerged was the rise of the PKI. Gatot Nurmantyo's allegations are based on several reasons including, since 2008 history lessons about G 30 S / PKI were eliminated at all levels of education in Indonesia, the weakening in TNI - Polri institutions, natural resources targeted by foreigners and hip bill that he considered a manisfesto PKI figure, DN Aidit in 1963 ago. On that basis as the Commander of the TNI at that time, Gatot ordered his ranks to rewatch the film G 30 S / PKI and now he joined the KAMI Movement to defend Pancasila.
On both Youtube channels, Gatot Nurmantyo's statement received support from netizens. The post by Hersubeno Point Youtube channel has been watched by 40,683 people and got 14 thousand likes. While unlike only 54 people. Similarly, the post by The People's Fortress Youtube channel has been watched by 50,863 people with 33,000 likes and only 65 likes. As for the comments on the Hersubeno Point Youtube channel there are 468 comments and on the Youtube channel Fort Rakyat there are 732 comments. From our observations of these comments, 95 percent support gatot Nurmantyo's claim. From this, it can be seen that the issue echoed by Gatot related to the rise of the PKI was able to stir the feelings of the person who tattooed the video so that it received positive attention.
Fake news can be accepted by the public not only because of limited information, but because of the flood of information overload triggered by the advancement of information technology. This fake news is accepted by the public by sharing on social media, one of which is Facebook.
One method of spreading lies carried out massively and systematically is firehose of falsehood. Where this method aims to pollute the information environment to influence existing information for policymakers or influence them through democratic pressure to erode trust in government institutions and the media by spouting and multiplying false narratives.
To fight the firehose of falsehood, synergy between stakeholders, both information sources and the public as recipients of information, as well as mass media and internet service providers as a forum to convey information to the public with various strengthening strategies through public education related to media literacy, counter narrative and counter-hoax, cyber patrols, and strengthening legislation.
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